Job Analysis

Why job analysis is a basic human resource management tool and explaining the reasons for conducting  job analysis.  Next, we review the types of job analysis  information  required  and discuss job analysis methods. Then, we explain the components of a well-designed job description and describe other methods for conducting job analysis and the ways job analysis helps to satisfy various legal requirements. We then examine the human resource planning process and some human resource forecasting techniques. Next, we discuss forecasting human resource requirements and availability and describe what actions could be taken should either a surplus or a shortage of workers exist. The chapter ends with a discussion of succession planning and development and job design.

Studying and under-standing jobs through the process known as job analysis is a vital part of any HRM program

I. Purposes of the job Analysis

Job analysis is used to acquire the information in following areas

1.    Major duties or activities required

2.    Conditions under which the job is performed

This process helps us to learn the following concepts:

Job: A group of tasks that must be performed in an organization to achieve its goals.
Position: The  tasks  and  responsibilities  performed  by  one  person;  there  is  a  position  for  every individual in an organization.
Task: A distinct, identifiable work activity composed of motions
Duty: A larger work segment composed of several tasks that are performed by an individual.
Responsibility: An obligation to perform certain tasks and duties.

II.   Job Analysis Defined:

Job  Analysis  is  the  SYSTEMATIC  process  of  collecting  and  making  judgments  about  all  the  important information related to a job. Job analysis is the procedure through which you determine the duties and nature of the jobs and the kinds of people who should be hired for them.  You can utilize the information it provides to write job descriptions and job specifications that are utilized in recruitment and selection, compensation, performance appraisal, and training.

III.   Reasons for Conducting Job Analysis

A sound job analysis system is extremely critical for numerous reasons.

•      Staffing—All areas of staffing would be haphazard if the recruiter did not know  the qualifications needed to perform the job.

•      Training And Development—if  the specification  suggests that the job requires a particular knowledge, skill, or ability—and the person filling the position does not possess all the qualifications required—training and/or development is probably in order.

•      Compensation  and Benefits—The  relative value of a particular job to the company must be known  before  a  dollar  value  can  be  placed  on  it.  From an internal perspective the more significant its duties and responsibilities, the more the job is worth.

•      Safety and Health—Information derived from job analysis is also valuable in identifying safety and health considerations.

•      Employee and Labor Relations—Regardless of whether the firm is unionized, information obtained through job analysis can often lead to more objective human resource decisions.

•      Legal Considerations—having properly accomplished a job analysis is particularly important for supporting the legality of employment practices.

a.      Job Analysis for Teams—Today whenever someone asks, “What is your job description?” the reply might well is, “Whatever.”  What this means is that if a project has to be completed, individuals do what has to be done to complete the task.

IV.   Types of Job Analysis Information

Considerable information is needed if job analysis is to be accomplished successfully. Knowledge of the types of machines, tools, equipment, and work aids that are used in performing the job is important. Some job analysis systems identify the standards that are established for the job.

Questions Job Analysis Should Answer

• What physical and mental tasks does the worker accomplish?

•  When does the job have to be completed?

•   Where is the job to be accomplished?

•    How does the worker do the job?

•     Why is the job done?

•      What qualifications are needed to perform the job?

V.   When Job analysis is performed?

Job analysis is conducted under following situations.

•     When the organization is founded

When organizations  are created  complete  information  about  jobs to be performed  is collected  through  job analysis.

•     When new jobs are created

When  jobs  are  changed  significantly  as a result  of new  technologies,  methods,  procedures,  or  systems  for analyzing them job analysis is conducted.

VI.   Uses of Job Analysis Information

1. Recruitment and Selection – Job descriptions and job specifications  are formed from the information gathered from a job analysis, which help management decide what sort of people to recruit and hire.

2. Compensation – The estimated  value and the appropriate  compensation  for each job is determined from the information gathered from a job analysis.

3. Performance  Appraisal  –  Managers  use  job  analysis  to  determine  a  job’s  specific  activities  and

performance standards.

4.  Training – Based on the job analysis, the job description should show the job’s required activities and skills.

5.  Discovering Unassigned Duties – Job analysis can help reveal unassigned duties.

6.   EEO Compliance – The Uniform  Guidelines  on Employee  Selection  stipulate  that job analysis  is a crucial step in validating all major personnel activities.

VII.   Steps in Job Analysis

The job analysis process has the following steps:

1.   Identify how the information will be used because that will determine what data will be collected and how it should be collected.  Interviewing and position analysis questionnaire are some examples of data collection techniques.

2.   Review relevant   background   information,   such as organization   charts, process charts, and job descriptions.

3.   Select representative positions to analyze because there may be too many similar jobs to analyze, and it may not be necessary to analyze them all.

4.  Analyze the job by collecting data on job activities, required employee behaviors, working conditions, and human traits and abilities needed to perform the job.

5.  Review and verify the job analysis information with job incumbents to confirm that it is factually correct and complete.

6.   Develop a job description and job specification from the job analysis information.

VIII.   Job analysis outcomes

a. Job description

A job description is a written statement of what the jobholder actually does, how he or she does it, and under what conditions the job is performed.    There is no standard format for writing job descriptions, but most descriptions include sections on:

•      Job identification

•      Job summary

•      Relationships, responsibilities, and duties

•      Authority of incumbent

•      Standards of performance

•      working conditions

•      Job specifications

b.Job specification

A  job  specification  is  a  document  containing  the  minimum  acceptable  qualifications  that  a  person  should possess in order to perform  a particular  job. Items typically included in the job specification  are educational requirements, experience, personality traits, and physical abilities.

c. Job evaluation

In Job Evaluation process the worth of job is identified based upon job comparability and according to worth, importance of job and relative value Compensation is designed and selected.