A group is defined as two or more interacting and interdependent individuals who come together to achieve particular objectives.
Types of Groups
1- Formal groups are work groups established by the organization and have designated work assignments and established tasks. The behaviors in which one should engage are stipulated by and directed toward organizational goals.
2- Informal groups are of a social nature and are natural formations. They tend to form around friendships and common interests.
Why Do People Join Groups?
There is no single reason why individuals join groups.
1. Security reflects strength in numbers.
• The group helps the individual to feel stronger, have fewer self-doubts, and be more resistant to threats.
2. Status indicates a prestige that comes from belonging to a particular group.
• Inclusion in a group viewed as important provides recognition and status.
3. Self-esteem conveys people’s feelings of self-worth.
• Membership can raise feelings of self-esteem–being accepted into a highly valued group.
4. Affiliation with groups can fulfill one’s social needs.
• Work groups significantly contribute to fulfilling the need for friendships and social relations.
5. One of the appealing aspects of groups is that they represent power.
• What often cannot be achieved individually becomes possible through group action.
• Power might be desired to protect themselves from unreasonable demands.
• Informal groups additionally provide opportunities for individuals to exercise power.
6. Finally, people may join a group for goal achievement.
• There are times when it takes more than one person to accomplish a particular task.
• There is a need to pool talents, knowledge, or power in order to get a job completed.
What Are Roles?
1. The concept of roles applies to all employees in organizations and to their life outside the organization as well.
2. A role refers to a set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone who occupies a given position in a social unit.
3. Individuals play multiple roles.
4. Employees attempt to determine what behaviors are expected of them.
5. An individual who is confronted by divergent role expectations experiences role conflict.
6. Employees in organizations often face such role conflicts.
Following are the different types of group roles:
1. Task-oriented roles
2. Relationship-oriented roles
3. Individual roles
• Information seekers/providers
Characteristics of a well-functioning, effective group
A group is considered effective if it is having following characteristics.
• Relaxed, comfortable, informal atmosphere
• Task to be performed are well understood & accepted
• Members listen well & participate in given assignments
• Clear assignments made & accepted
• Group aware of its operation & function
• People express feelings & ideas
• Consensus decision making
• Conflict & disagreement center around ideas or method